Authorship 2019-12-08T10:20:10+01:00 Gert Buelens Open Journal Systems Authorship aims to offer a venue in which to describe diverse historical and discursive settings of authorship, and to grapple with the complex issues of authorial authority, independence or interdependence, and self-fashioning. Enheduana and the Invention of Authorship 2019-12-08T10:20:10+01:00 Sophus Helle <p>The first known author, Enheduana, gained a central place in the literary culture of ancient Iraq long after the death of Sumerian, the language in which her poems were written. The essay argues that her authorship served to depict the Sumerian literary heritage as a tangible object that could be acquired by people who did not speak Sumerian as their native language, since Enheduana’s poems condensed a cacophony of independent traditions into a single entity. The process primarily took place in the city of Nippur in the troubled decades after 1740 BC, as the ancient scholars desperately needed to assert their importance. They did so by claiming special access to Sumerian literature, and authorship served as an ideal vehicle to represent that literature and that access. In short, Enheduana became a body and a bridge for Sumerian literature, condensing it into a single object and allowing it to move into a new cultural context.</p> 2019-07-09T15:44:32+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Descriptive Bibliography of British and Irish Editions of Isaac Watts’s Divine Songs (1715–ca. 1830) 2019-12-08T10:20:01+01:00 Tielke Uvin <p>Isaac Watts’s Divine Songs, Attempted in Easy Language for the Use of Children (1715) represents a pivotal point in the history of children’s literature. This bibliography, a product of the author’s doctoral research, provides a detailed list of British and Irish issues of Divine Songs published between 1715, the year in which the first edition was issued, and ca. 1835. It takes advantage of contemporary research tools to update and revise earlier work by Wilbur Macey Stone (1918) and John Henry Pyle Pafford (1971) and significantly expands their bibliographies. In contrast to Stone’s and Pafford’s work, this bibliography offers more detailed descriptions. It is intended to be used on its own or as a reference list during library work.</p> 2019-07-09T16:04:08+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Unreliable Author: Narrative Duality in Sonallah Ibrahim’s ʾAmrīkānlī 2019-12-08T10:19:53+01:00 Wessam Elmeligi <p>In his novel ʾAmrīkānlī (2003), Sonallah Ibrahim contextualizes individuality and history within a narrative of decaying academia, ineffectual sexual desire and identities determined more often by ethnicity and heritage than by a genuine search for truth. Ibrahim’s novel conceptualizes the intersection of the literary and the historical by introducing autobiographical elements, set in binary oppositions of the public and the private, the academic and the personal, the objective and the subjective. Ibrahim’s semi-autobiographical fiction stages a comparison between history and literature, positing literature as an alternative to historical questions. This article examines the duality of the unreliable narrator as authorial voice in ʾAmrīkānlī, highlighting how Ibrahim’s narrative embodies the binary existence of the main ideas that the novel addresses by constantly emphasizing the availability of two perspectives.</p> 2019-07-09T16:05:40+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## John Farrell, The Varieties of Authorial Intentions: Literary Theory Beyond the Intentional Fallacy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017) 2019-12-08T10:19:44+01:00 Frederik Kiparski <p>John Farrell, The Varieties of Authorial Intentions: Literary Theory Beyond the Intentional Fallacy. Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.</p> 2019-07-09T16:06:45+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##